诺奖得主朱棣文哈佛演讲:生命太短暂,你必须对某样东西倾注蜜意!

原标题:诺奖得主朱棣文哈佛演讲:生命太短暂,你必须对某样东西倾注蜜意!

导语

朱棣文,1948年2月28日生于美国密苏里州圣路易斯,第12任美国能源部部长,1997年诺贝尔物理学奖获得者,现任斯坦福大学物理学教授。朱棣文的祖父朱祝年是苏州太仓城厢镇的一位读书人,父亲朱汝瑾1940年卒业于清华大学化工系,1943年留美就读麻省理工学院,1946年获该院化工博士。母亲李静贞出生于天津,1945年清华大学经济系卒业后往美国麻省理工学院攻读工商管理。

朱棣文哈佛大学演讲稿中文版

亲爱的Faust校长,哈佛集团的各位成员,监管理事会的各位理事,各位老师,各位家长,各位朋友,以及最主要的各位卒业生同学,

感谢你们,让吾有机会同你们一首分享这个美妙的日子。

吾不太肯定,本身够得上哈佛大学卒业典礼演讲人如许的殊荣。

往年登上这个讲台的是,英国亿万身家的幼说家J.K. Rowling女士,她最早是一个古典文学的弟子。

前年站在这边的是比尔·盖茨师长,他是一个超级富翁、一个慈善家和电脑先天。今年很遗憾,你们的演讲人是吾,固然吾不是很有钱,但是起码吾是一个书呆子。

吾很感激哈佛大学给吾荣誉学位,这对吾很主要,能够比你们会想到的还要主要。要清新,在学术上,吾是吾们家的异类。

吾的哥哥在麻省理工学院得到医学博士,在哈佛大学得到形而上学博士; 吾的弟弟在哈佛大学得到一个法律学位。

吾本人得到诺贝尔奖的时候,吾想吾的妈妈会起劲。但是,吾错了。新闻公布的那天早晨,吾给她打电话,她听了只说:"这是益新闻,不过吾想清新,你下次什么时候来望吾?"现在在吾们兄弟当中,吾最后也拿到了哈佛学位,吾想这一次,她会感到舒坦。

在哈佛大学卒业典礼上发外演说,还有一个难处,那就是你们中有些人能够有偏见,不喜欢吾重复古人演讲中说过的话。吾请求你们体谅吾,由于两个理由。

最先,为了产生影响力,很主要的手段就是重复传递同样的新闻。在科学中,第一个发现者是主要的,但是在得到公认前,末了一个做出这个发现的人能够更主要。

其次,一个借鉴他人的作者,正走在一条古人开辟的最佳道路上。哈佛大学卒业生、诗人喜欢默生曾经写下:“吾最益的一些思维,都是从古人那里偷来的。”

画家毕添索宣称“特出的艺术家借鉴,远大的艺术家偷窃。”那么为什么卒业典礼的演说者,就不适用同样的标准呢?

吾还要指出一点,向哈佛卒业生发外演说,对吾来说是有奚落意味的,由于倘若以前吾斗胆向哈佛大学递交入学申请,肯定会被拒绝。

吾的妻子Jean当过斯坦福大学的招生主任,她向吾保证,倘若以前吾申请斯坦福大学,她会拒绝吾。

睁开全文

吾把这篇演讲的草稿给她过现在,她凶猛指斥吾操纵“拒绝”这个词,她从来不拒绝任何申请者。在拒绝信中,她总是写:“吾们无法挑供你入学机会。”

吾分不清两者到底有何差别。不过,那些大炎门私塾的招生主任总是很实际的,堪称“拒绝他人的主任”。很隐微,吾必要益益学学怎么来倾销本身。

卒业典礼演讲都按照古典奏鸣弯的组织,吾的演讲也不破例。刚才是第一笑章——轻盈的聊天。

接下来的第二笑章是送上门的忠言。如许的忠言很稀奇价值,几乎注定被遗忘,永世不会被实践。

但是,就像王尔德说的:“对于忠言,你所能做的,就是把它送给别人,由于它对你异国任何用处。”因此,下面就是吾的忠言。

第一,取得收获的时候,不要遗忘古人。要感谢你的父母和声援你的朋友,要感谢那些启发过你的教授,尤其要感谢那些上不益课的教授,由于他们迫使你自学。

从团体望,自学能力是特出的文科哺育中必不可少的,将成为你成功的关键。

你还要往拥抱你的同学,感谢他们同你进走过的很多次彻夜长谈,这为你的哺育带来了无法衡量的价值。自然,你还要感谢哈佛大学。不过即使你忘了这一点,校友会也会来挑醒你。

第二,在你们异日的人生中,做一个慷慨时兴的人。在任何议和中,都把末了一点点益处留给对方。不要把桌上的钱都拿走。在配相符中,不要把荣誉留给本身。成功配相符的任何一方,都答获得通盘荣誉的90%。

电影《Harvey》中,Jimmy Stewart扮演的角色Elwood P. Dowd,就十足理解这一点。

他说:“多年前,母亲曾经对吾说,‘Elwood,活在这个世界上,你要么做一个智慧人,要么做一个益人。’”吾做智慧人,已经做了益多年了……

但是,吾选举你们做益人。你们能够引用吾这句话。

吾的第三个忠言是,当你起师长活的新阶段时,请陪同你的喜欢益。

倘若你异国喜欢益,就往找,找不到就不罢息。生命太短暂,因此不克空手走过,你必须对某样东西倾注你的蜜意。

吾在你们这个年龄,是超级的一根筋,吾的现在的就是非成为物理学家不可。

本科卒业后,吾在添州大学伯克利分校又待了8年,读完了钻研生,做完了博士后,然后往贝尔实验室待了9年。在这些年中,吾关注的中央和做事上的通盘有趣,都来自物理学。

吾还有末了一个忠言,就是说有趣喜欢益固然主要,但是你不该该只考虑有趣喜欢益。当你白发苍苍、垂年迈矣、回首人生时,你必要为本身做过的事感到自夸。

物质生活和你实现的占据欲,都不会产生自夸。只有那些受你影响、被你转折过的人和事,才会让你产生自夸。

在贝尔实验室待了9年后,吾决定脱离这个温暖安详的象牙塔,走进吾眼中的“实活着界”——大学。

吾对贝尔实验室的望法,能够引用Mary Poppins的话,“实际上自圆其说”。但是,吾想脱离那栽仅仅是科学论文的生活。吾要往教书,造就吾本身在科学上的子女。

吾在斯坦福大学有一个良朋兼特出同事Ted Geballe。他也是从伯克利分校往了贝尔实验室,几年前又脱离贝尔实验室往了斯坦福大学。他对吾们的动机做出了最佳描述:

“在大学做事,最大的益处就是弟子。他们生气勃勃,足够亲炎,思维解放,还没被生活的重压转折。固然他们本身异国认识到,但是他们是这个社会中你能找到的最佳受多。

倘若生命中只有一段时间是思维解放和足够创造力,那么那段时间就是你在读大学。进校时,弟子们对课本上的一字一句毫不疑心,徐徐地,他们发现课本和教授并不是无所不知的,于是他们最先自力思考。从当时首,就是吾最先向他们学习了。”

吾教过的弟子、带过的博士后、配相符过的年轻同事,都特意特出。他们中有30多人,现在前已经是教授了。他们所在的钻研机构有不少是全世界第一流的,其中就包括哈佛大学。

吾从他们身上学到了很多东西。即使现在前,吾意外还会周末上网,向现在前还从事生物物理学钻研的弟子请示。

吾怀着回报社会的想法,最先了教弟子涯。吾的一生中,得到的多于吾支付的,因此吾要回报社会。这就引出了这次演讲的末了一个笑章。

最先吾要讲一个了不首的科学发现,以及由此带来的新挑衅。它是一个战斗的号令,到了做出转折的时候了。

以前几十年中,吾们的气候不息在发生转折。气候转折并不是现在前才有的,以前60万年中就发生了6次冰河期。

但是,现在前的测量外明气候转折添速了。北极冰盖在9月份的大幼,只相等于50年前的一半。

1870年首,人们最先测量海平面上升的速度,现在前的速度是当时的5倍。一个宏大的科学发现就如许产生了。

科学第一次在人类历史上,展望出吾们的走为对50~100年后的世界有何影响。

这些转折的因为是,从工业革命最先,人类排放到大气中的二氧化碳增补了。这使得地球的平均气温上升了0.8摄氏度。

即使吾们立刻停留所有温室气体的排放,气温照样将比以前上升大约1度。由于在气温达到平衡前,海水温度的上升将不息几十年。

倘若全世界保持现在前的经济模式不变,说相符国当局间气候转折特意委员会(IPCC)展望,本世纪末将有50%的能够,气温起码上升5度。

这听首来相通不多,但是让吾来挑醒你,上一次的冰河期,地球的气温也仅仅只消极了6度。当时,俄亥俄州和费城以下的大片面美国和添拿大的土地,都终年被冰川遮盖。

气温上升5度的地球,将是一个特意迥异的地球。由于转折来得太快,包括人类在内的很多生物,都将很难体面。

比如,有人通知吾,在更温暖的环境中,昆虫的个头将变大。吾不清新现在前身旁嗡嗡叫的这只大苍蝇,是不是就是前兆。

吾们还面临另一个幽灵,那就是非线性的“气候引爆点”,这会带来很多主要得多的转折。

“气候引爆点”的一个例子就是悠久冻土层的消融。悠久冻土层经过千万年的累积形成,其中包含了巨量的冻僵的有机物。

倘若冻土消融,微生物就将普及滋生,使得冻土层中的有机物迅速腐烂。冷冻后的生物和冷冻前的生物,它们在生物学特性上的迥异,吾们都很熟识。

在冷库中,冷冻食品在经过长时间保存后,照样能够食用。但是,一旦解冻,常见问题食品很快就腐烂了。

一个腐烂的悠久冻土层,将开释出多少甲烷和二氧化碳? 即使只有一片面的碳被开释出来,能够也比吾们从工业革命最先开释出来的所有温室气体还要多。这栽事情一旦发生,局势就失控了。

末了,你们是人道主义者,吾请求你们为了人道主义言语。气候转折带来的最残酷的奚落之一,就是最受迫害的人,正好就是最无辜的人----那些世界上最穷的人们和那些还异国出生的人。

这个末了笑章的终结部是引用两幼我道主义者的话。

第一段引语来自马丁•路德•金。这是1967年他对越南搏斗终结的评论,但是望上往特意正当用来评论今天的气候危机。

"吾呼吁全世界的人们专一相符力,屏舍栽族、肤色、阶级、国籍的隔阂;吾呼吁包罗一致、无条件的对全人类的喜欢。

你会因此遭受误解和误读,信念尼采形而上学的世人会认定你是一个怯弱和怯生生的懦夫。但是,这是人类存在下往的绝对必需......

吾的朋友,现时的原形就是,明天就是今天。现在前,吾们面临最主要的情况。在转瞬万变的生活和历史之中,有相通东西叫做悔之晚矣。"

第二段引语来自威廉•福克纳。1950年12月10月,他在诺贝尔奖获奖晚宴上发外演说,谈到了世界在核搏斗的阴影之下,人道主义者答该扮演什么样的角色。

"吾坚信人类不光能忍耐,而且会获胜。人类是不朽的,这不是由于万物当中仅仅他会无穷尽的呼喊,而是由于他有一个灵魂,有怜悯心、殉国精神和忍耐力。

诗人和作家的义务就是写这些东西。他们的特权正是始末鼓舞人类,唤首人类原有的荣耀----勇气、荣誉、期待、自夸、怜悯之心和殉国精神,往协助人类学会忍耐。"

各位卒业生同学,你们在吾们的异日中扮演举足轻重的角色。当你们探索幼我的志向时,吾期待你们也会发扬奉献精神,积极发声,在大大幼幼各个方面协助改进这个世界。这会给你们带来最大的已足感。

末了,请批准吾最炎烈的祝贺。期待你们成功,也期待你们珍惜和抢救吾们这个星球,为了你们的孩子,以及异日所有的孩子。

朱棣文哈佛大学演讲稿英文版

Madam President Faust,members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, faculty, family,friends, and, most importantly, today’s graduates,

Thank you for letting meshare this wonderful day with you.

I am not sure I can live upto the high standards of Harvard Commencement speakers.

Last year, J.K.Rowling, the billionaire novelist, who started as a classics student, gracedthis podium.

The year before, Bill Gates, the mega-billionaire philanthropistand computer nerd stood here. Today, sadly, you have me. I am not wealthy, butat least I am a nerd.

I am grateful to receive anhonorary degree from Harvard, an honor that means more to me than you mightcare to imagine. You see, I was the academic black sheep of my family.

My olderbrother has an M.D./Ph.D. from MIT and Harvard while my younger brother has alaw degree from Harvard.

When I was awarded a Nobel Prize, I thought my mother would be pleased. Not so. When I called her on the morning of the announcement, she replied, "That's nice, but when are you going to visit me next." Now, as the last brother with a degree from Harvard, maybe, at last, she will be satisfied.

Another difficulty withgiving a Harvard commencement address is that some of you may disapprove of thefact that I have borrowed material from previous speeches. I ask that youforgive me for two reasons.

First, in order to haveimpact, it is important to deliver the same message more than once. In science,it is important to be the first person to make a discovery, but it is even moreimportant to be the last person to make that discovery.

Second, authors who borrowfrom others are following in the footsteps of the best. Ralph Waldo Emerson,who graduated from Harvard at the age of 18, noted “All my best thoughts werestolen by the ancients.”

Picasso declared “Good artists borrow. Great artistssteal.” Why should commencement speakers be held to a higher standard?

I also want to point outthe irony of speaking to graduates of an institution that would have rejectedme, had I the chutzpah to apply.

I am married to “Dean Jean,” the former deanof admissions at Stanford. She assures me that she would have rejected me, ifgiven the chance.

When I showed her a draftof this speech, she objected strongly to my use of the word “rejected.” Shenever rejected applicants; her letters stated that “we are unable to offer youadmission.”

I have difficulty understanding the difference. After all, deans ofadmissions of highly selective schools are in reality, “deans of rejection.”Clearly, I have a lot to learn about marketing.

My address will follow theclassical sonata form of commencement addresses. The first movement, justpresented, were light-hearted remarks.

This next movement consists ofunsolicited advice, which is rarely valued, seldom remembered, never followed.

As Oscar Wilde said, “The only thing to do with good advice is to pass it on.It is never of any use to oneself.” So, here comes the advice.

First, every time youcelebrate an achievement, be thankful to those who made it possible.

Thank yourparents and friends who supported you, thank your professors who wereinspirational, and especially thank the other professors whoseless-than-brilliant lectures forced you to teach yourself.

Going forward, theability to teach yourself is the hallmark of a great liberal arts education andwill be the key to your success.

To your fellow students who have addedimmeasurably to your education during those late night discussions, hug them.Also, of course, thank Harvard. Should you forget, there’s an alumniassociation to remind you.

Second, in your futurelife, cultivate a generous spirit. In all negotiations, don’t bargain for thelast, little advantage.

Leave the change on the table. In your collaborations,always remember that “credit” is not a conserved quantity. In a successfulcollaboration, everybody gets 90 percent of the credit.

Jimmy Stewart, as Elwood P.Dowd in the movie “ Harvey” got it exactly right.

He said: “Years ago my motherused to say to me, ‘In this world, Elwood, you must be … she always used tocall me Elwood … in this world, Elwood, you must be oh so smart or oh sopleasant.’”

Well, for years I was smart. ... I recommend pleasant. You mayquote me on that.

My third piece of advice isas follows: As you begin this new stage of your lives, follow your passion.

If you don’t have a passion, don’t be satisfied until you find one. Life is tooshort to go through it without caring deeply about something.

When I was yourage, I was incredibly single-minded in my goal to be a physicist.

After college, I spent eight years as a graduate student and postdoc at Berkeley, andthen nine years at Bell Labs. During that my time, my central focus andprofessional joy was physics.

Here is my final piece ofadvice. Pursuing a personal passion is important, but it should not be youronly goal. When you are old and gray, and look back on your life, you will wantto be proud of what you have done.

The source of that pride won’t be the thingsyou have acquired or the recognition you have received. It will be the lives youhave touched and the difference you have made.

After nine years at Belllabs, I decided to leave that warm, cozy ivory tower for what I considered tobe the “real world,” a university.

Bell Labs, to quote what was said about MaryPoppins, was “practically perfect in every way,” but I wanted to leave behindsomething more than scientific articles. I wanted to teach and give birth to myown set of scientific children.

Ted Geballe, a friend anddistinguished colleague of mine at Stanford, who also went from Berkeley toBell Labs to Stanford years earlier, described our motives best:

“The best part of workingat a university is the students. They come in fresh, enthusiastic, open toideas, unscarred by the battles of life. They don"t realize it, butthey"re the recipients of the best our society can offer.

If a mind isever free to be creative, that"s the time. They come in believingtextbooks are authoritative, but eventually they figure out that textbooks andprofessors don"t know everything, and then they start to think on theirown. Then, I begin learning from them.”

My students, post doctoral fellows, and the young researchers who worked with me at Bell Labs, Stanford, and Berkeley have been extraordinary. Over 30 former group members are now professors, many at the best research institutions in the world, including Harvard.

I have learned much from them. Even now, in rare moments on weekends, the remaining members of my biophysics group meet with me in the ether world of cyberspace.

I began teaching with theidea of giving back; I received more than I gave. This brings me to the finalmovement of this speech.

It begins with a story about an extraordinaryscientific discovery and a new dilemma that it poses. It’s a call to arms andabout making a difference.

In the last severaldecades, our climate has been changing. Climate change is not new: the Earthwent through six ice ages in the past 600,000 years.

However, recent measurements show that the climate has begun to change rapidly. The size of theNorth Polar Ice Cap in the month of September is only half the size it was amere 50 years ago.

The sea level which been rising since direct measurementsbegan in 1870 at a rate that is now five times faster than it was at thebeginning of recorded measurements.

Here’s the remarkable scientific discovery. For the first time in human history, science is now making predictions of howour actions will affect the world 50 and 100 years from now.

These changes are dueto an increase in carbon dioxide put into the atmosphere since the beginning ofthe Industrial Revolution. The Earth has warmed up by roughly 0.8 degreesCelsius since the beginning of the Revolution.

There is already approximately a1 degree rise built into the system, even if we stop all greenhouse gasemissions today. Why? It will take decades to warm up the deep oceans beforethe temperature reaches a new equilibrium.

If the world continues on abusiness as usual path, the Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change predictsthat there is a fifty-fifty chance the temperature will exceed 5 degrees by theend of this century.

This increase may not sound like much, but let me remindyou that during the last ice age, the world was only 6 degrees colder. Duringthis time, most of Canada and the United States down to Ohio and Pennsylvaniawere covered year round by a glacier.

A world 5 degrees warmerwill be very different. The change will be so rapid that many species,including Humans, will have a hard time adapting.

I’ve been told for example, that, in a much warmer world, insects were bigger. I wonder if this thingbuzzing around is a precursor.

We also face the specter ofnonlinear “tipping points” that may cause much more severe changes.

An exampleof a tipping point is the thawing of the permafrost. The permafrost containsimmense amounts of frozen organic matter that have been accumulating formillennia.

If the soil melts, microbes will spring to life and cause thisdebris to rot. The difference in biological activity below freezing and abovefreezing is something we are all familiar with.

Frozen food remains ediblefor a very long time in the freezer, but once thawed, it spoils quickly. Howmuch methane and carbon dioxide might be released from the rotting permafrost?

If even a fraction of the carbon is released, it could be greater than all thegreen house gases we have released to since the beginning of the industrialrevolution. Once started, a runaway effect could occur.

Finally, as humanists, I ask that you speak to our common humanity. One of the cruelest ironies about climate change is that the ones who will be hurt the most are the most innocent: the worlds poorest and those yet to be born.

The coda to this last movement is borrowed from two humanists.

The first quote is from Martin Luther King. He spoke on ending the war in Vietnam in 1967, but his message seems so fitting for today's climate crisis:

"This call for a worldwide fellowship that lifts neighborly concern beyond one's tribe, race, class, and nation is in reality a call for an all-embracing and unconditional love for all mankind.

This oft misunderstood, this oft misinterpreted concept, so readily dismissed by the Nietzsches of the world as a weak and cowardly force, has now become an absolute necessity for the survival of man ...

We are now faced with the fact, my friends, that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now. In this unfolding conundrum of life and history, there is such a thing as being too late."

The final message is from William Faulkner. On December 10th, 1950, his Nobel Prize banquet speech was about the role of humanists in a world facing potential nuclear holocaust.

"I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance.

The poet's, the writer's, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past."

Graduates, you have an extraordinary role to play in our future. As you pursue your private passions, I hope you will also develop a passion and a voice to help the world in ways both large and small. Nothing will give you greater satisfaction.

Please accept my warmest congratulations. May you prosper, may you help preserve and save our planet for your children, and all future children of the world.

 


posted @ 20-01-14 04:06  作者:admin  阅读量:

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